I'm a philosopher. I write and teach on how the nature of consciousness helps us understand our fundamental nature, how we think and feel, the nature and activity of God, and human flourishing, especially related to emerging technology and neuroscience.


I work as a research fellow at Baylor University. I'm also the Fanz Brentano Fellow in the Metaphysics of Mind at Westmont University's Martin Institute.

I also love robots and Indian food.


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PhD, Philosophy

Baylor University - 2020

Dissertation: The Conscious Mind Unified

Co-Directors: Timothy O'Connor & Alexander Pruss

Committee: C. Stephen Evans, Todd Buras,

                    neuroscientist Charles Weaver III

MA, Philosophy

Baylor University - 2018

MA, Philosophy of Religion & Ethics

Biola University - 2013

BA, Philosophy

University of California, Irvine - 2010 


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Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles



  • “Alister McGrath’s Anti-Mind-Body Dualism: Neuroscientific and Philosophical Quandaries for Christian Physicalism.” Trinity Journal. [download]



  • “The Primacy of the Mental: From Russellian Monism to Substance Dualism.” Philosophia Christi[download]

  • “Intentionality Contra Physicalism: On the Mind’s Independence from the Body.” With Dallas Willard. Philosophia Christi.


  • “The Sanctifying Work of the Holy Spirit: Revisiting Alston’s Interpersonal Model.” With Steve Porter. The Journal of Analytic Theology. [download]


  • “Responding to N. T. Wright’s Rejection of the Soul.” Heythrop Journal. [download]



  • “The Argument from Reason, and Mental Causal Drainage: A Reply to van Inwagen.” With Todd Buras. Philosophia Christi.[download]


  • “Natural Theology, Evidence, and Epistemic Humility.” With Trent Dougherty. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion.



  • “Who You Could Have Known: Divine Hiddenness, Epistemic Counterfactuals, and the Recalcitrant Nature of Natural Theology.” With Derek McAllister. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion. [download]



  • “What Does it Mean to Be a Bodily Soul?” With C. Stephen Evans. Philosophia Christi. [download]



  • “Eternal Life as Knowledge of God: An Epistemology of Knowledge by Acquaintance and Spiritual Formation.” Journal of Spiritual Formation and Soul Care. [download]

Book Chapters



  • “Virtue Formation and The Sanctifying Work of the Holy Spirit.” With Steven L. Porter. Faith and Virtue Formation. Oxford University Press.

  • “The Plausibility of Property Dualism and the Intelligibility of a Spiritual Substance: A Reply to Churchland.” With J. P. Moreland. Christianity & Science in Dialogue. Routledge. 


  • “Against Emergent Dualism.” The Blackwell Companion to Substance Dualism. Wiley Blackwell. [download]

  • “Dismantling Bodily Resurrection Arguments Against Mind-Body Dualism.” Christian Physicalism? Rowman & Littlefield.


  • “Neuroscience, Spiritual Formation, and Bodily Souls: A Critique of Christian Physicalism.” With C. Stephen Evans. Christian Physicalism? Rowman & Littlefield. [download]

Work in Progress


  • What is the Mind? An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind. IVP Academic. Forthcoming, 2021.

  • Substance Dualism: A Contemporary Defense. Co-Author J. P. Moreland.


Journal Articles

  • “Enduring Problems for Biological Animalism.” Status: R&R.

  • “Scattered No More: Phenomenal Consciousness and the Foundations of Epistemic Justification.” 


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Positions Held


  • Postdoctoral Research Fellow 

    • Accountability as a Relational Virtue. Baylor University. John Tempelton Trust, 2020-2021.

  • Franz Brentano Fellow in the Metaphysics of Mind 

    • Martin Center, Westmont University, 2019-2021.

  • Graduate Research Fellow 

    • SCP Science Cross-Training (neuroscience). John Tempelton Foundation, 2018-2019.

Teaching Positions

  • Baylor University

    • Teacher of Record, 2018-2020.

  • Azusa Pacific University

    • Adjunct Instructor of Philosophy, 2013-2015. 

  • Biola University

    • Adjunct Instructor of Philosophy, 2014-2015.


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Public Facing Philosophy


  • "The Practice of Discernment: Ignatian Help During a Modern Pandemic." [link]

  • "COVID-19 and a Christian Epistemology of the Heart."




  • "Substance Dualism & Bodily Souls." The Ultamist Podcast



  • More Coming Soon 

Audio Lectures

  • Coming Soon 


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Research Archives

The Argument from Consciousness to Theism [link]

Divine Hiddenness [link]

Philosophy & Christian Spiritual Formation [link]

Philosophy of Religion [link] Coming Soon

The Dualism Archive [link] Coming Soon

Emerging Technology, Culture, and Consciousness [link] Coming Soon

© 2023 Brandon Rickabaugh